Romanika is an ancient style full of pagan traditions and cues. The modern viewer is quite satisfied with the external intricacy and vivid expressiveness of the Romanesque sculpture. Meanwhile, the masters of the early Middle Ages considered it their duty to embody in stone the complex structure of the universe, its divine essence and incomprehensible complexity.
The heyday of this style in sculpture came at the beginning of the 12th century, and already the 13th century led to a new powerful style that overshadowed the previous ones. We are talking about Gothic, which appeared due to the development of the Romanesque, heavy and rough style, in the bowels of which Gothic airiness and harmony matured. In such an intricate way, barbarian Europe began its journey, rejecting antiquity ...
Sculptural romance is inextricably linked with architecture. There is no sculpture outside the temple - the early Christianity of Western Europe was afraid of the return of idolatry, so the temple sculpture itself appears late enough.
Speaking of Romanesque sculpture, it is necessary to clarify that this sculpture itself can be called with some stretch. Most often, the reliefs adorning tympans (semicircular spaces of arches above the entrances), as well as capitals of columns and decorative frames of the walls are meant. A round sculpture, completely freed from stone, a rare phenomenon in the novel, characteristic of the latest period of the style's development.
The Middle Ages practically did not leave us the names of artists, sculptors, architects. Therefore, almost all the works of the Romanesque style are anonymous.
Subjects of Romanesque sculpture are always associated with biblical subjects. Favorite topic - Last Judgment, End of the World, Apocalypse. Reliefs on these topics abound with scary monsters, monsters, and fantastic creatures. It is in these reliefs that the most borrowings are from barbaric mythological representations of the world of people and the world of shadows.
The plots associated with the triumph of Jesus Christ are full of pathos and pathos. The very figure of Christ is interpreted as the image of the Great Judge, the Almighty, one of the incarnations of God the Father.
The masters of romance loved to clash opposites in their works: hell and heaven, heaven and earth, good and evil. In this clash of fundamental differences, sculptors sought to portray the complex structure of the universe. Hence the multi-figure, the vivid emotionality of the characters, the complex interweaving of the figures, the tension and dynamism of the compositions.
Most of Romanica’s masterpieces are preserved in France, Germany and Spain. Rich in decor are the cathedral in Worms, the monastery in Cluny, the temple in Poitiers. So loved by tourists Pisa Cathedral, the church in Peterborough, the basilica in Saint-Denis.
Many large temples in Europe were rebuilt with the advent of fashion in the Gothic style, many sculptures suffered during the French Revolution. However, the remaining masterpieces give a complete picture of the once-only, heavy and rude style that adorned all the temples of Western Europe.